miércoles, 29 de mayo de 2013

En sus trece // In his thirteen


El papa Benedicto XIII de Aviñón, también considerado como antipapa, y conocido como el Papa Luna, es recordado por su terquedad. La expresión española "mantenerse en sus trece" proviene del 'modus operandi' de este pontífice aragonés que fue el principal perdedor del Cisma de Occidente.

Pedro Martínez de Luna fue nombrado Papa en Aviñón tras la muerte de Clemente VII en 1394 por mayoría absoluta. Tomó el nombre de Benedicto XIII. Francia se opuso a su gestión porque no era tan manejable como sus antecesores y porque era súbdito aragonés, lo que dificultaba que fuese leal a la monarquía gala. En 1398, Francia le retiró su apoyo político y financiero, y le presionó para que renunciara. El papa se negó alegando un daño irreparable a la Iglesia.

Los franceses bloquearon militarmente la ciudad pero Benedicto XIII consiguió escapar a Nápoles en 1403. Portugal, Navarra y 17 cardenales le retiraron su apoyo. Solo Castilla, Aragón, Sicilia y Escocia le reconocían.

Pero sus acciones posteriores provocaron que perdiese todos sus apoyos. Frustró el proyecto conjunto con Gregorio XII de renuncia y unificación de la sede papal, al insistir en que era el único pontífice legítimo. Trató de revitalizarse en la disputa de Tortosa pero acabó excomulgado en 1415 por el concilio de Constanza como hereje y antipapa, y depuesto junto a Juan XXII. En este encuentro se designó a Martín V como el único vicario de Cristo.

Luna se enclaustró en el castillo templario de Peñíscola (Castellón de la Plana), con la protección de Alfonso V de Aragón, y siguió defendiendo hasta su muerte a los 96 años que era el único papa legítimo: Benedicto y sus trece.

@enriquevdiez

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The pope Benedict XIII of Avignon, also considered as an antipope, and known in Spain as the Papa Luna, is remembered for his stubbornness. The Spanish expression "stay in his thirteen" comes from the 'modus operandi' of this Aragonese pontifex that was the main loser of the Western Schism.

Pedro Martínez de Luna was proclaimed pope in Avignon after the death of Clement VII in 1394 by an absolute majority. He named himself Benedict XIII. France was against his management because he wasn't as easily manipulated as his predecessor and because he was Aragonese subject, aspect which complicated his loyalty to the Gallic monarchy. In 1398, France retired its political and economic support, and leaned on them to force his renunciation. The pope refused to it claiming an irreparable damage for the Church.

French laid siege to the city but Benedict XIII managed to escape to Naples in 1403. Portugal, Navarre and 17 cardinals withdrew their support. Only Castile, Aragon, Sicily and Scotland recognized him.

But his following behaviour caused the loss of his support. He frustrated a joint project of giving up and unification of the papal see with Gregory XII, because of he insisted on he was the only lawful pontifex. He tried to revitalise his papacy in the dispute of Tortosa, but he ended up excommunicated on 1415 by the Council of Constance as heretic and antipope, and deposed together with John XXII. In this meeting, Martin V was designated as the only one Christ vicar.

Luna cloistered himself in the Templar castle of Peñíscola (Castellón de la Plana), under the protection of Alphonse V of Aragon, and continued maintaining until his death at the age of 96 years that he was the only lawful pope: Benedict and his thirteen.

@enriquevdiez

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